records of Indian team


Playing Conditions

Cricket is one of the very few sports which depend heavily on the weather, and the pitch conditions to determine how a match is played.


Weather Conditions

Hot Ball is softer, more spin.
Cold Harder ball, bounces more, harder to field.
Windy Ball swings more.
Dew Bowling is difficult, as there is no grip.
Humid Softer ball, more swing.
Cloudy Ball swings more.
Elevation (above msl ) Ball zips faster through the air.

Pitch conditions

Just before the match starts, the pitch is inspected and depending on its nature, the amount of runs in the first innings scored can be estimated, and whether the winning captain would prefer to bat, or bowl first.

Hard Bouncy and fast aides fast bowlers, good to bat.
Soft Slow, helps spinners and medium pacers.
Dusty Spinners delight
Flat & smooth Batsman's paradise, lots of runs scored.
Sprinkle of grass Ball bounces more, ideal for the fast bowlers.
Uneven Low scoring match, hard to score runs.
Cracks on surface Aids spinners
Inclination Ball breaks (angle changes) after pitching

Field Conditions

More Grass Easier to field, ball travels slower and less 4's scored.
Less Grass Ball zips away to the boundary for 4.
Large outfield Less 6's & 4's, but more chances of the batsmen getting 2,3 & 4 runs by running between wickets.
Small Outfield More 4's & 6's, High scoring game.
Soft ground Less 4's, easier for fielders to dive around.
Moisture on ground Less 4's
Small gradient, with the pitch slightly elevated as compared to the boundary



Terms used in a Match


Most of the time when the batsman hits the ball, it is hit cleanly, ie. the ball hits the middle of the bat. However, sometimes, the ball hits the edge of the bat and can go anywhere in the field. Most of the balls that hit the edges produce a deflection, and are caught by the wicketkeeper.

There are four edges. Top edge, (near the handle) & bottom edge, inside edge and outside edge. The Inside edge (edge closest to the batsman), for a right hander, this is the right side of the bat. Outside edge is the left side.

Dot Balls

If a run is not scored from a ball, it is a DOT BALL (Zero runs).

Block Hole

The block-hole is the term used to describe the ideal ball to bowl in the death overs (40 - 50). The ball is pitched at the batsman's toes. If the batsman misses, he is bowled or out LBW. These sort of balls are hard to score runs off.

How does the ball Swing?

The cricket ball consists of 2 leather halves with 2 parallel seams in the centre. The bowlers try to make the ball seam (swing or curve) in the air. This is done in the following manner:

After the ball is hit around & softened in the initial 10 overs, the spinners and swing bowlers bowl to exploit the condition ball. The two sides of the ball is divided into the smooth and rough side, by the bowler bowling first and continued by the successive bowlers.

The ball is smoothened by friction. The action of the bowler furiously rubbing one side of the ball on his body, smoothens one side of the ball. The use of body fluids on the ball is allowed to give the ball weight. Bowlers rub their sweat, saliva etc. on one side of the ball to make that side uneven and heavy. That side of the ball is agreed upon by the team bowlers throughout the innings. The ball can also be rubbed on the pitch.

Due to the uneven distribution of weight on the ball, when the ball is bowled, the air resistances curves the ball. So the ball moves in a curved motion and swings. Spinners make use of Bernoulli's Principle to spin the ball.


Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), the Swiss mathematician, stated that energy is conserved in a moving fluid (liquid or gas). If the fluid is moving in a horizontal direction, the pressure decreases as the speed of the fluid increases. If the speed decreases, the pressure increases
In spinning a ball, the spinner makes the ball spin rapidly. As a result, the air speed is greater on one side of the ball than on the other. The resulting difference in air pressure produces a net force toward the lower-pressure side and pushes the ball along a curved path.


If artificial substances such as creams, petroleum jelly etc. are used on the ball, it will have a greater swing! This, being unfair, is not allowed. Also, if the seam is lifted by the bowler's fingernails, the ball has tends to have a  greater swing.

Such practices are illegal and are banned. Players risk suspension from further matches. This is called "Ball Tampering."



A yorker is a ball pitched at the batsman's toes. Such balls are ideally bowled at the death overs, as it is extremely hard to hit. If combined with high speed and swing, (fast in-dipper), the ball is deadly.

Another useful option at the death overs, are the "change of pace" balls, where a slow ball is bowled at the batsman. If the batsman doesn't pick the change, he can get out, since the ball won't travel as far as he intended it to go.


If you bend your elbow while releasing the ball, the umpire no-balls that delivery. This is called chucking, and is is illegal, as it gives the extra speed to the ball. Repeated no-balls could find the bowler suspended by the umpire and possibly fined.

Test Cricket

The second variety of Cricket is TEST Cricket. Test Cricket is the original variant of the game and the highest form of cricket. It lasts for 5 days . Test cricket is the quintessential part of cricket. Only 10 countries have Test membership. 

Test cricket is also called, traditional, unlimited overs, five days or slow edition. Test Playing nations get an automatic entry into the World Cups.



Tests are usually played in a series of 3 or 5 matches, preceded / followed by an ODI series and a few First Class Matches. Teams like England and Australia have different players for ODI and Tests but with limited success. In the other teams, the players are mostly the same. Test matches contain 4 innings (2 each).

The match is played in three sessions per day. Morning (9-12), Lunch (12:30- 2:45) and Tea (3:00-5:00). There are two breaks: 12-12:30 is lunch, and 2:45-3:00 is tea. ( These are approximate timings which vary according to season & geographic location. ). Sometimes Test matches have a rest day after the third day's play.

Differences between ODI & Tests


The rules of play of test cricket are similar to that of One-day cricket. However there are many differences in the rules and strategies. In Test cricket, there is no limitation on the overs that a team can face. Hence the Strike Rate & Run Rate aren't so important. Therefore a run rate of 4.00 is considered good, while on average a rate of 2.50 is what usually is scored.


In Test matches white clothing is used only, and the helmet/cap can be the team colours. Umpires have to wear black and white. Only a red ball can be used.


In a day, a minimum of 90 overs have to be bowled. If that is not possible, then the  play is extended after 5 PM or play st